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Biography: Nelson Mandela and he was the first president of South Africa.

Nelson Mandela was the first president of South Africa to be elected through fully representative democratic elections. Before he became president, he was a well-known anti-apartheid radical and the leader of the African National Congress. He was convicted of sabotage and clandestine armed resistance for 27 years.

About Nelson Mandela: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, passed away on December 5, 2013, at the age of 95, from a prolonged respiratory infection. Nelson Mandela was married to Evelyn Ntoko Mase in 1944; div. Winnie Madikizela was married in 1958; div. (1996)Graça Machel 1998) Nelson Mandela: Who is he?

Nelson Mandela was a member of the cadet branch of the Thembu Dynasty, which ruled (nominally) in the Cape Province Union's Transkeian Territories. He was born in the Transkei's small village of Qunu, which is in the Mthatha district. His great-grandfather, the Inkosi Enkulu, or King of the Thembu people, Ngubengcuka, who passed away in 1830, was the subject of British colonial rule. Mandela, one of the king's sons, became Nelson's grandfather and gave his surname to him.

Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, his father's chief of the Mvezo village, was born in 1880 and died in 1928. He moved his family to Qunu, but he lost his position because he upset the colonial authorities. However, Gadla remained a member of the Privy Council of Inkosi and helped Jongintaba Dalindyebo ascend to the Thembu throne. Following Gadla's death, Jongintaba Dalindyebo informally adopted Mandela. Mandela's father had a total of 13 children—four boys and nine girls—from four different wives. Gadla's third wife gave birth to Nosekeni Fanny, a daughter of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa tribe and the homestead where Mandela spent the majority of his childhood. The term "third" refers to a complicated royal ranking system. Rolihlahla, the meaning of his given name, means "one who brings trouble upon himself."

Education of Nelson Mandela: At the age of seven, Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend school. A Methodist teacher named him "Nelson" after the British admiral Horatio Nelson. Rolihlahla's father died of tuberculosis when he was nine years old, and the Regent, Jongintaba, became Rolihlahla's guardian. Mandela was enrolled in a Wesleyan mission school that was just across the street from the Regent's palace. At the age of 16, he was initiated into the Thembu tradition and attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute to acquire knowledge of Western culture.

He completed his Junior Certificate in two years rather than the usual three.

As he was supposed to succeed his father as a private counselor, Mandela moved to Healdtown, a Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort that was attended by most Thembu royalty, in 1937. At the age of 19, he became interested in running and boxing. He registered and began his B.A. studies. At Fort Hare University, where he met Oliver Tambo, they became lifelong friends and colleagues. At the conclusion of his first year, he participated actively in a Students' Representative Council protest against university policies and was compelled to leave Fort Hare. When Mandela first arrived in Johannesburg, he got a job as a guard at a mine. However, once the employer learned that Mandela was the Regent's adopted runaway son, this was immediately terminated. He was then able to secure employment as a law firm clerk because of connections he had made with his friend and fellow lawyer Walter Sisulu. He studied law at the University of Witwatersrand after completing his degree at the University of South Africa (UNISA) via correspondence while working. During that time, Mandela lived in a township called Alexandra. About Nelson Mandela's Family and Marriage Nelson Mandela had six children, 20 grandchildren, and an increasing number of great-grandchildren from three marriages. Evelyn Ntoko Mase, who, like Mandela, was from the Transkei region that would later become South Africa, was his first wife. In Johannesburg, they first met.  Madiba Thembekile (born 1946) and Makgatho (born 1950) were the couple's two sons, and Makaziwe (known as Maki; between 1947 and 1953.

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Nelson Mandela's second wife, was also from the Transkei region, even though they met in Johannesburg, where she was the city's first black social worker. Zenani (Zeni), who was born on February 4, 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi), who was born in 1960, were the results of the union. In 1998, on his 80th birthday, Mandela married Graça Machel, née Simbine, the widow of Samora Machel, a former Mozambican president and an ANC ally who was killed 12 years earlier in an air crash. The union was fuelled by political estrangement and ended in separation in April 1992 and divorce in March 1996. The wedding was performed on Mandela's behalf by his traditional ruler, King Buyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo, who was born in 1964. It came after months of international negotiations to set the unparalleled bride price sent to her clan.

Ironically, when this supreme leader's grandfather, the Regent, chose a bride for him, he forced Mandela to flee to Johannesburg as a young man. 

About Nelson Mandela's Politics: Nelson Mandela was influential in the ANC's Defiance Movement in 1952 and the People's Congress in 1955. After the Afrikaner-dominated National Party's victory in the 1948 election with its apartheid racial segregation policy, they adopted the Freedom Charter, which provided the basic anti-apartheid program. During this time, Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo, a fellow lawyer, ran the Mandela and Tambo law firm, which provided many black people without legal representation free or at a low cost.

Mandela was initially influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and dedicated to non-violent mass struggle. On December 5, 1956, he and 150 others were arrested and accused of treason. All were cleared in the marathon Treason Trial that lasted from 1956 to 1961. From 1952 to 1959, the ANC was disrupted by a new group of black activists known as Africanists who came to the townships to take more severe action against the National Party government. The ANC leadership of Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo, and Walter Sisulu believed that not only were things moving too quickly, but that their leadership was also being questioned.

Under Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo, most Africanists split off to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) in 1959, with financial support from Ghana and major political support from the Transvaal-based Basotho. This caused the ANC to lose its most militant support.

Arrest and Detention In 1961, Nelson Mandela was appointed chief of the armed wing of the ANC that he co-founded, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation, also abbreviated as MK). He planned for a future guerrilla war if sabotage failed to end apartheid and coordinated a campaign of sabotage against military and government goals. In fact, MK fought a guerrilla war against the regime a few decades later, particularly in the 1980s, which resulted in the deaths of many civilians.

In addition, during visits to various African governments, Mandela organized paramilitary training for MK and collected funds.

On August 5, 1962, after going on the run for 17 months, he was found and taken to the Johannesburg Fort. The charges of leading workers to a strike in 1961 and illegally leaving the country were read to him three days later at a court appearance. On October 25, 1962, Mandela was given a five-year prison term. Two years later, on June 11, 1964, a verdict was made regarding his previous membership in the African National Congress (ANC).

The remainder of Nelson Mandela's 27 years in prison were spent on Robben Island. The majority of his autobiography, "Long Walk to Freedom," was written there. In that book, Mandela did not say anything about the possible involvement of President F. W. De Klerk or Winnie Mandela, his ex-wife, in the brutality of the 1980s and early 1990s.

However, he later collaborated with his friend, journalist Anthony Sampson, who addressed these issues in Mandela: The Authorized Biography. In February 1985, Mandela refused a conditional release offer in exchange for abstaining from armed struggle, and he remained in prison until the united ANC and international activism came up with the resounding slogan "Free Nelson Mandela!" In February 1990, President de Klerk ordered Mandela's release and the lifting of the ANC ban simultaneously.

After apartheid ended, full enfranchisement was granted in South Africa's first democratic elections on April 27, 1994. Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as the country's first black president as leader of the ANC, with de Klerk of the National Party serving as his deputy president in the National Unity Government. The ANC won the vote in the election.

Nelson Mandela urged black South Africans to support the once-ignored Springboks, the South African national rugby team, as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. After the Springboks defeated New Zealand in an epic final, Nelson Mandela presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. This has been widely regarded as a significant step toward the reconciliation of black and white South Africans.

Additionally, it was during his administration that South Africa entered the space age with the launch of the SUNSAT satellite in February 1999. It was developed by students at Stellenbosch University and was primarily used to photograph land in South Africa that was affected by vegetation and forestry issues.

Awards from Nelson Mandela: Nelson Mandela was honored with numerous South African, foreign, and international honors, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, the Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom from George W. Bush. During a ceremony in Orlando, South Africa, in July 2004, the city of Johannesburg bestowed its highest honor on Nelson Mandela by granting him the freedom of the city.

During his tour of Canada in 1998, he gave a speech at the Sky Dome in Toronto, where 45,000 schoolchildren showed him a lot of love as a sign of how well-known he was around the world. In 2001, he became the first living person to receive the honorary citizenship of Canada. In 1992, Turkey presented him with the Ataturk Peace Prize. He initially declined the award, citing Turkey's violations of human rights during that time, but later accepted it in 1999. Amnesty International presented him with the Ambassador of Conscience Award as well.

Retirement and death: In the summer of 2001, Nelson Mandela was diagnosed with prostate cancer and had it treated. In June 2004, at the age of 85, Mandela declared that he would step down from public life. He and his family decided to spend more time together because his health had been deteriorating. After suffering from a persistent respiratory infection, he passed away on December 5, 2013, at the age of 95. He passed away at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, surrounded by his family.

Some information about Nelson Mandela: Nelson Mandela was the president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black president of South Africa and the first to be elected through a fully representative process. Nelson Mandela's leadership focused on overthrowing the country's Apartheid government, which had legalized racial segregation.

Nelson Mandela went to school to study law, and he went on to become one of the first black lawyers in South Africa. In the 1950s, he was chosen to lead the youth section of the African National Congress (ANC) liberation movement. After the ANC was banned by the government for racial reasons, Mandela started a secret military movement. He had previously taken part in peaceful protests, but when the government retaliated with violence, he switched to promoting an anti-government movement.

Nelson Mandela, the anti-apartheid leader from South Africa who also worked for human rights around the world, was given a life sentence on June 12, 1964, by the establishment of South Africa for his political activism. He spent 27 years in prison before he was released, during which time he became the anti-apartheid movement's face.

You can learn more about Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa who opposed apartheid and became the nation's first black president.

Nelson Mandela's life story: Nelson Mandela was born in the village of Mvezo in Cape Province on July 18, 1918, to a royal family from the Thembu tribe. The Xhosa language was spoken by the tribe.

He was born as Rolihlahla. Mandela was adopted by another high-ranking tribe member when he was nine years old, preparing him for leadership in the tribe.

When Mandela attended the local missionary school, he became the first member of his family to receive a formal education. As was customary at the time, he was given the English name "Nelson" at the school.

He attended a different missionary school for his secondary education. He was going to be significantly influenced by the Christian faith.

Mandela entered the prestigious University of Fort Hare in 1939. At the time, it was the only institution of higher education for black African students that was modelled after the West.

However, he was kicked out for protesting the institute's policies, so he never finished his education. When Mandela got back to his house, he found out that his marriage had been planned. He fled to Johannesburg and began working as a night watchman to get away from this.

He also worked as a law clerk and studied for his bachelor's degree via correspondence.

Mandela made friends with a lot of black and white activists at the University of Witwatersrand, where he was enrolled to study law.

In 1944, he became a member of the African National Congress (ANC). Along with other leaders like Oliver Tambo, he also established its youth wing, the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL).

The National Party won power in South Africa in the 1948 elections and implemented strict segregation policies. Basic rights were denied to non-whites, who were subjected to severe restrictions. Even the government barred them from entering.

Through non-violent means, the ANC began its campaign for full citizenship for all South Africans.

In support of equal rights, Mandela traveled across the country. In 1952, he was in charge of the ANC's Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws. Together with Tambo, he also established the nation's first black law firm to represent black people adversely affected by unfair segregation laws.

Mandela was apprehended in 1956. After the trial, he was given his freedom in 1961, but the situation was getting worse.

In 1959, the Pan Africanist Congress (PAN) was established to support armed resistance against apartheid.

In Sharpeville, in 1960, a group of peaceful black protesters were shot by police. There were 69 deaths. In various regions of the nation, riots broke out. The government outlawed both the ANC and the PAC. Also during this time, Mandela began a more radical strategy after giving up peaceful resistance.

He and his colleagues established the Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961. This was the ANC's armed wing.

Under Mandela's direction, the MK launched a rebellion against the government through sabotage.

In January 1962, despite being prohibited from traveling abroad, he met Tambo, an exile in London. In Algeria, he also received guerrilla training.

He was detained when he returned to South Africa in August 1962. He received a five-year prison term. After that, he was taken to the trial, which was known as the "Rivonia Trial."

Questions and Answers About Nelson Mandela's Biography: What did Nelson Mandela do best?

Mandela is regarded as the founder of present-day South Africa. He played a key role in overthrowing the authoritarian government and establishing democracy. In 1993, Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to peacefully overthrow the Apartheid regime and establish democracy.

What famous quote came from Nelson Mandela?

"To be free is to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others, not just to cast off one's chains."

What makes Nelson Mandela so heroic?

Nelson Mandela was the courageous former president of South Africa who lived from 1918 to 2013 and worked tirelessly to end apartheid, establish a free, multiracial, democratic South Africa, and lead the way toward a more equal world.

What changed the world through Nelson Mandela's actions?

Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1990 after serving 27 years. He negotiated the end of apartheid in South Africa with State President F. W. de Klerk, bringing peace to a nation that was racially divided and leading the fight for human rights worldwide. All humans are born free and with the same rights and dignity.

Why is Mandela such an inspiring figure?

What is Nelson Mandela's current philosophy?

Rightfully, Nelson Mandela's unwavering efforts to combat racism, social injustice, and apartheid extend far beyond Africa. He became a global icon, among other things, by demonstrating that empathy, not hatred, can overcome hatred.

Who gave Nelson Mandela the salute?

Answer: Mr. Mandela was praised by Gordon Brown for his bravery and leadership.

What qualities about Nelson Mandela inspire you?

Nelson Mandela brought about significant change in South Africa that was felt all over the world. In the early 1990s, he was a pioneer in bringing about post-apartheid reconciliation and putting an end to white minority rule. He became the first black leader and the first democratically elected president of South Africa in 1994.

Gandhi did Mandela meet?

Mandela drew on Gandhi's words, ethics, and experience, and the two have a lot in common, including their formidable resistance capacity, their spirit of harmony, their universalist ethics, and their status as icons today. Although these two great men never met, they were allies in their struggles.

Who renamed Nelson Mandela?

My English teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us a name on the first day of school. In those days, Africans followed this custom, which was undoubtedly influenced by our British education. Miss Mdingane informed me that Nelson was my new name that day.

Nelson Mandela was born when and where?

According to his bio, Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918. His folks named him Rolihlahla after he was conceived. The English first name Nelson, which was given to him by his teacher, Miss Mdingane, as the name to which he should respond at school, eventually complemented this African name. He was born in South Africa's Transkei province.

Why is he also referred to as "Madiba"? "Madiba" is Nelson Mandela's clan name, indicating that he belonged to the Madiba clan, which was named after a Thembu tribe chief from the eighteenth century. "As a sign of respect, I am commonly addressed as Madiba, my tribal name," Nelson Mandela writes in his autobiography.

How did Nelson Mandela begin his education? He attended a mission school nearby. At the end of 1942, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from the University College of Fort Hare in Alice, Eastern Cape. In the beginning of 1943, Mandela enrolled at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to earn a bachelor of law degree, but he never completed the program. After several unsuccessful attempts, he decided in 1952 to take the exam that would qualify him to practice as a full-fledged attorney. In 1989, he received his law school diploma.

When was Nelson Mandela given the Peace Prize from the Nobel Committee? And why? In 1993, "for their work for the peaceful end of the apartheid regime, and for establishing the foundations for a new democratic South Africa," Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk, the president of South Africa at the time, shared the Nobel Peace Prize. To learn more about his contribution to the organization, visit Minorstudy.

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