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Jean Baptiste Lamarck, or Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck was biologist.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck, or Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck, was a pioneering French biologist who was born on August 1, 1744, in Bazentin-le-Petit, Picardy, France. He died on December 18, 1829, in Paris. Lamarckism, or the idea that acquired characters are inheritable, is contested by modern genetics and evolutionary theory.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Conceived: August 1, 1744 France Kicked the bucket: On December 18, 1829, aged 85, in Paris, France, notable works included: Subjects of Study: "Flore francaise," "Hydrogéology," "Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres," and "Philosophie zoologique." invertebrate Lamarckism, evolution, and taxonomy Early life and career Lamarck was the youngest of 11 children in a lower nobility family. Lamarck entered the military in 1761 after his father's death and the Jesuits' expulsion from France, despite his family's intention for him to become a priest. As a trooper posted in the south of France, he became keen on gathering plants. He resigned in 1768 due to an injury, but his interest in botany persisted, and it was as a botanist that he first established his scientific reputation.

Minorstudy Quiz Faces of Science Lamarck attracted the attention of the naturalists working at the Jardin et Cabinet du Roi (the king's garden and natural history collection, more commonly referred to as the Jardin du Roi) in Paris by claiming that he could develop a method for identifying the plants of France that would be more effective than any system currently in use, including the one developed by the great Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus. Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon, the director of the Jardin du Roi and Linnaeus' greatest rival, found this project appealing. Buffon made arrangements for the government to pay for Lamarck's work to be published, and Lamarck got the money from the sales. Flore française, published in three volumes in 1778, was the title of the work. Flora of France Dichotomous keys, which are classification tools that allow the user to choose between opposing pairs of morphological characters (see taxonomy: Lamarck designed the Flore française specifically for the task of plant identification), were used in Lamarck's Flore française. the goals of biological classification) in order to accomplish this goal.

Lamarck was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1779 with Buffon's support. Two years later, as Lamarck escorted Buffon's son on a scientific tour of Europe, Buffon named Lamarck "correspondent" of the Jardin du Roi, evidently to give Lamarck additional status. Lamarck had his first official, albeit unpaid, connection to the Jardin du Roi as a result of this. Flahault de la Billarderie, Buffon's successor, established a salaried position for Lamarck with the title "botanist of the King and keeper of the King's herbaria" shortly after his death in 1788.

Lamarck published three massive botanical volumes for the Encyclopédie méthodique (literally, "Methodical Encyclopaedia"), a massive publishing company founded in the late 18th century by French publisher Charles-Joseph Panckoucke. Additionally, in the Mémoires of the Academy of Sciences, Lamarck published botanical papers. He cofounded and coedited the Journal d'histoire naturelle, a short-lived journal of natural history, in 1792.

Lamarck was promoted to the position of professor at the National Museum of Natural History in 1793, when the former Jardin du Roi was transformed into the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. During the transition, each of the twelve scientists who had been officers at the previous institution was appointed as a professor and co-administrator at the new one; However, only two botany professorships were established. The botanists Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu and René Desfontaines stood firm on more prominent cases to these situations, and Lamarck, in a striking movement of obligations, was made teacher of the "bugs, worms, and minute creatures." Lamarck was an avid collector of shells, so this shift in focus was not entirely unjustified, even though it was remarkable. Lamarck then set out to categorize this vast, unstudied portion of the animal kingdom. He would later coin the term "invertebrate" and refer to this group as "animals without vertebrae." Lamarck had also coined the term biology in 1802.

Access exclusive content with a subscription to Minorstudy Premium. Subscribe Now This challenge would have been sufficient to keep the majority of naturalists busy; nonetheless, Lamarck's scholarly yearnings ran well past that of transforming invertebrate order. He began promoting the broad theories of physics, chemistry, and meteorology he had been developing for nearly two decades in the 1790s. Additionally, he began contemplating Earth's geologic past and developed ideas that he would eventually publish in Hydrogéologie (1802). He presented an outdated four-element theory in his physicochemical writings, deliberately at odds with the revolutionary developments of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's new pneumatic chemistry. Lamarck's broad theorizing was viewed as unscientific "system building" by his colleagues at the Institute of France, which succeeded the Academy of Sciences. Lamarck, on the other hand, grew increasingly dismissive of scientists who valued "small facts" more than "larger, more important facts." He began to refer to himself as a "naturalist-philosopher," a person who was more concerned with the larger processes of nature than he was with the particulars of a chemist's laboratory or naturalist's closet.

The legacy of procured characters In 1800 Lamarck previously put forward the progressive idea of species changeability during a talk to understudies in his invertebrate zoology class at the Public Exhibition hall of Normal History. His broad theory of organic transformation had begun to take shape by 1802. In his 1802 work, "Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivans," he presented the theory in stages. Research on the Structure of Living Things"), and his Zoological Philosophie (1809; " Zoological Philosophy”), as well as the introduction to his monumental, multivolume study of invertebrate classification, Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres (1815–22; " Regular History of Invertebrate Creatures"). The concept that the simplest forms of plant and animal life were the result of spontaneous generation was a component of Lamarck's theory of organic development. He asserted that two distinct types of causes contributed to life's subsequent diversification.

The first was what he referred to as "the power of life" or "the cause that tends to make organization increasingly complex," while the second was what he referred to as the modifying influence of specific circumstances (that is, the effects of the environment). In his Philosophie zoologique, he explained this: The state in which all of the animals are currently found is, on the one hand, the result of the increasing composition of organization, which has a tendency to form a regular gradation, and, on the other, the result of the influences of a wide variety of very different circumstances, which have a consistent tendency to destroy the regularity in the gradation of the increasing composition of organization. This is the state in which all of the animals are currently found.

With this hypothesis, Lamarck offered significantly more than a record of how species change. He also talked about what he thought was the form of an animal kingdom classification system that was truly "natural." This system's main feature was a single scale of increasing complexity that included all animal classes, from the simplest microscopic organisms, or "infusorians," all the way up to mammals. However, the species could not be arranged in a straightforward series. Lamarck referred to them as developing "lateral ramifications" in relation to the general "masses" of organization that the classes represented. When a species changed in a way that reflected the different, unique environments to which it had been exposed, it had lateral ramifications.

According to Lamarck's theory, animals developed new habits as a result of adjusting to new environments. They used some organs more and some less as a result of their new habits, strengthening the first group and weakening the second. As a result, organisms passed on their new traits to the next generation (assuming that, in the case of sexual reproduction, both of the offspring's parents had undergone the same changes). Major differences were produced by relatively insignificant changes that persisted for extended periods of time. As a result, Lamarck explained how long-held habits gave rise to the shapes of swans, giraffes, snakes, storks, and other animals. Anaxagoras, Hippocrates, and others introduced the fundamental concept of "the inheritance of acquired characters," but Lamarck was essentially the first naturalist to argue that this process's long-term operation could lead to species change.

Even though Charles Darwin himself believed that acquired characters could be inherited, the concept of the inheritance of acquired characters came to be identified as a distinctly "Lamarckian" view of organic change later in the century, following the advancement of the English naturalist's theory of evolution through natural selection. In biology, the concept was not seriously challenged until August Weismann did so in the 1880s. Lamarck's idea was completely discredited in the 20th century because it was not experimentally confirmed and the evidence that was commonly cited in its favor was interpreted differently. Since then, epigenetics, the study of chemically altering genes and gene-associated proteins, has provided an explanation for how an organism's traits can be passed on to its offspring.

As a founder of invertebrate paleontology, an evolutionary theorist, and a botanical and zoological systematist, Lamarck made the most significant contributions to science. His theory of evolution was generally dismissed as implausible, unproven, or heretical in his time. He is primarily remembered for his theory that acquired traits are passed down through generations. Nevertheless, Lamarck stands out in the history of biology as the first author to present a comprehensive theory of organic evolution that accounted for the subsequent production of all forms of life on Earth in detail and in a systematic manner.

One of the best botanical gardens in the world is the Jardin des Plantes, officially known as the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, English Botanical Garden, or National Museum of Natural History. It is in Paris. It was first opened to the public in 1650 after being established in 1626 as a royal garden of medicinal plants. The garden was greatly expanded under the direction of G.-L.L. Buffon (1739–88), and it developed into a center for scientific research that was associated with prominent early French botanists and zoologists like the Jussieu brothers, Georges Cuvier, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

It supported expeditions to numerous far-flung regions of the world at the beginning of the 19th century, which resulted in the discovery of numerous previously unknown plants to Western science.

The Jardin des Plantes still occupies its original location and spans 28 hectares (68 acres). There are 22 service functions and six display greenhouses on the property. These greenhouses and outdoor plots are used to cultivate approximately 23,500 different species of plants. Cacti, grasses, bromeliads, orchids, ferns, aroids, Australian flora, alpine plants, iris, cannas, and conifers can be found throughout the garden. The herbarium kept up with at the nursery is one of the world's best and comprises of in excess of 6 million dried reference examples. The garden-museum complex also includes a botanical library, a small zoo, a labyrinth, and various natural-history exhibits.

Minorstudy Team most recently revised and updated this article.

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