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Physicist and physiologist of Indian plants Other titles: Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose.




Physicist and physiologist of Indian plants Other titles: Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose by the Encyclopaedia Britannica editors; most recent revision: Nov. 26, 2022: Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, also known as Jagadish or Jagadis, was an Indian plant physiologist and physicist who was born on November 30, 1858, in Mymensingh, Bengal, India (now in Bangladesh) and died on November 23, 1937, in Giridih, Bihar. He invented highly sensitive instruments for the detection of minute responses by living organisms to external stimuli, which allowed him to anticipate the parallelism The coherer, an early form of radio detector, was improved through Bose's experiments on the quasi-optical properties of very short radio waves in 1895, which contributed to the development of solid-state physics.


Born: Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose Mymensingh, Bangladesh, passed away on November 30, 1858: November 23, 1937, Giridih, India (aged 78) Subjects of Study: stimulus-response behavior Following his graduation from the University of Cambridge in 1884, Bose taught physical science at Presidency College in Calcutta (now Kolkata) from 1885 to 1915 before founding and running the Bose Research Institute in Calcutta from 1917 to 1937. He built automatic recorders that could record even minute movements to make his research easier; The quivering of injured plants, for example, was Bose's demonstration of a plant's apparent power of feeling, which these instruments produced. Response in the Living and the Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants are among his works.




The full name of Max Planck is Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, who was born on April 23, 1858, in Kiel, Schleswig (Germany) and died on October 4, 1947, in Göttingen, Germany. He was a German theoretical physicist who developed quantum theory, which earned him the 1918 Nobel Prize for Physics.


Honors and Awards: Subjects of Study: Copley Medal (1929) and Nobel Prize (1918) Planck's constant, Planck's radiation law, blackbody radiation, and quantum Planck made numerous contributions to theoretical physics, but he is best known for developing the quantum theory. Similar to how Albert Einstein's theory of relativity revolutionized our understanding of space and time, this theory revolutionized our understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. Together, they make up the fundamental physics theories of the 20th century. Both have resulted in industrial and military applications that have an impact on every facet of modern life and have forced humanity to reconsider some of its most cherished philosophical beliefs.


Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was born in Kiel, Germany, the sixth child of a prominent jurist and law professor. Planck's own life and work were deeply influenced by the long family tradition of devotion to church and state, excellence in scholarship, incorruptibility, conservatism, idealism, reliability, and generosity. When Planck was nine years old, his father got a job at the University of Munich. Planck went to the famous Maximilian Gymnasium in Munich, where a teacher named Hermann Müller sparked his interest in physics and math.




However, Planck excelled in all subjects, and when he graduated at age 17, he had to make a difficult choice about his career. Because he had concluded objectively that physics was where his greatest originality lay, he ultimately chose physics over classical philology or music. Despite this, music continued to play a significant role in his life. He was an excellent pianist with absolute pitch and daily found peace and pleasure at the keyboard, particularly enjoying Schubert and Brahms. Even as he got older, he still enjoyed going for long walks every day and climbing mountains while on vacation.


In the fall of 1874, Planck enrolled at the University of Munich, but he received little support from physics professor Philipp von Jolly there. He was unimpressed by the lectures of Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff at the University of Berlin from 1877 to 1878, despite their prominence as researchers. His independent study, particularly of Rudolf Clausius's thermodynamics writings, however, brought his intellectual capabilities to the forefront. He went back to Munich and got his doctorate in July 1879, the year that Albert Einstein was born, at the unusually young age of 21.





He became a Privatdozent after completing his Habilitationsschrift (qualifying dissertation) at Munich the following year. He was promoted to the position of ausserordentlicher Professor (associate professor) at the University of Kiel in 1885 with the assistance of his father's professional connections. Planck was appointed to the University of Berlin in 1889, following Kirchhoff's death, where he came to regard Helmholtz as a mentor and colleague. He received the rank of ordentlicher Professor in 1892. Even though he only had nine doctoral students, his Berlin lectures on all areas of theoretical physics were widely read and influential. He spent the rest of his active life in Berlin.


Planck recalled that "the discovery that the laws of human reasoning coincide with the laws governing the sequences of the impressions we receive from the world about us was a direct result of the original decision to devote myself to science;" that, as a result, man can gain insight into the world's mechanism through pure reasoning. He chose to become a theoretical physicist deliberately at a time when theoretical physics was not yet recognized as a separate field. He went on, however: He came to the conclusion that the "outside world is something independent from man, something absolute, and the quest for the laws which apply to this absolute appeared as the most sublime scientific pursuit in life" in order for the existence of physical laws to exist.




The first law of thermodynamics, the law of energy conservation, was the first natural instance of an absolute that deeply impressed Planck even while he was a student at the Gymnasium. He also became convinced that the entropy law, also known as the second law of thermodynamics, was an absolute law of nature during his university years. In 1900, he discovered the quantum of action, which is now known as Planck's constant h, thanks to his research on the second law, which served as the foundation for his doctoral dissertation at Munich.


In 1859-60 Kirchhoff had characterized a blackbody as an article that reemits all of the brilliant energy episode upon it; i.e., it is an excellent radiation emitter and absorber. By the 1890s, numerous experimental and theoretical attempts had been made to determine the spectral energy distribution of blackbody radiation, which is the curve that shows how much radiant energy is emitted at various frequencies for a given temperature of the blackbody. The formula that his colleague Wilhelm Wien discovered in 1896 at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) in Berlin-Charlottenburg particularly piqued Planck's interest, and he went on to make a series of attempts to determine "Wien's law" using the second law of thermodynamics. However, by October 1900, the experimentalists Otto Richard Lummer, Ernst Pringsheim, Heinrich Rubens, and Ferdinand Kurlbaum, along with their PTR colleagues, had discovered clear evidence that, while Wien's law held true at high frequencies, it completely vanished at low frequencies.






These findings came to Planck just before the German Physical Society's October 19 meeting. If Wien's law held in the high-frequency region, he knew how the radiation's entropy had to mathematically depend on its energy. In addition, he realized how significant this dependence had to be in the low-frequency region in order to replicate the results of the experiments there. Therefore, Planck figured he should try to combine these two expressions in the simplest way possible and turn the result into a formula that relates the radiation's energy to its frequency.


The outcome, which is known as Planck's radiation regulation, was hailed as undeniably right. However, to Planck, it was only a guess—a "lucky intuition." It had to be derived in some way from basic principles if it was to be taken seriously. Planck put all of his efforts into that task right away, and by December 14, 1900, he had succeeded, albeit at a great cost. One of Planck's most cherished beliefs, that the second law of thermodynamics was an absolute law of nature, had to be given up for him to succeed.

He had to accept Ludwig Boltzmann's interpretation of the second law, which said that it was a statistical law. Furthermore, Planck needed to expect that the oscillators containing the blackbody and yet again emanating the brilliant energy occurrence upon them couldn't retain this energy constantly however just in discrete sums, in quanta of energy; The formula that Planck had discovered two months earlier could only be obtained by statistically distributing these quanta, each of which contained an energy h proportional to its frequency, over all of the oscillators in the blackbody.


He used his formula to evaluate the constant h (his value was 6.55 1027 erg-second, which is close to the modern value of 6.626 1027 erg-second), the so-called Boltzmann constant (the fundamental constant in kinetic theory and statistical mechanics), Avogadro’s number, and the charge of the electron. This provided additional evidence for the significance of his formula. As time went on, physicists became increasingly aware that the microphysical world, or the world of atomic dimensions, could not, in principle, be described by conventional classical mechanics because Planck's constant was not zero but had a small but finite value. A significant shift in physical theory was about to take place.





In other words, Planck's idea of energy quanta was fundamentally at odds with all previous physical theory. The force of his logic compelled him to strictly introduce it; One historian said that he was a reluctant revolutionary. In point of fact, it took many years before the far-reaching effects of Planck's discovery were generally acknowledged, and Einstein played a crucial role in this process. In 1907, he demonstrated the generality of the quantum hypothesis by utilizing it to interpret the temperature dependence of the specific heats of solids. In 1905, Einstein argued, independently of Planck's work, that in certain circumstances radiant energy seemed to consist of quanta (light quanta, later known as photons). The wave-particle duality was introduced into physics by Albert Einstein in 1909.


Planck and Einstein were among the prominent physicists who attended the inaugural Solvay conference in Brussels in October 1911. Henri Poincaré was inspired by the discussions there to provide a mathematical proof that Planck's radiation law necessitated the introduction of quanta. This proof convinced James Jeans and others to support the theory of quantum mechanics. Through his quantum theory of the hydrogen atom in 1913, Niels Bohr also made a significant contribution to its establishment. Ironically, Planck was one of the last to fight for a return to classical theory. Later, he didn't feel bad about it because he saw it as a way to fully convince himself of the need for quantum theory. Until the Compton effect was discovered in 1922, opposition to Einstein's radical light quantum hypothesis continued.





Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose CSI CIE FRS was a researcher, physicist, botanist and an early essayist of sci-fi. He was a driving force behind the expansion of experimental science on the Indian subcontinent, made significant contributions to botany, and was a pioneer in the study of radio microwave optics.


What was discovered by Jagadish Chandra Bose?

It's possible that his work helped to develop radio communication. He is also credited with discovering electromagnetic waves of millimeter length and being a pioneer in biophysics. Over a century later, many of his instruments are still on display and can be used in large part.


Was Jagadish Chandra Bose awarded the Nobel Peace Prize?

The Nobel Prize was not awarded to Jagadish Chandra Bose. In spite of his contributions and breakthroughs in wireless connectivity, Guglielmo Marconi received the wireless physics Nobel Prize in 1909.


Who is India's scientific father?

Propelled by grandiose nationalistic beliefs, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858 - 1937), the dad of current science in the Indian subcontinent, established Bose Foundation.



Credit blogs writer's and editors:- Minorstudy Team.

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