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Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in Agra, where he took the throne in 1628.







The Mughal dynasty's fifth emperor was Shah Jahan. Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife, passed away during his third regnal year from complications brought on by the birth of their fourteenth child. The emperor, deeply bereaved, almost immediately began planning the construction of a suitable, long-term resting place for his beloved wife. His efforts and resources led to the construction of what is now known as the Taj Mahal, also known as the Luminous Tomb in contemporary Mughal texts.

Sunni Muslims generally favor a straightforward, open-sky burial. However, notable domed mausolea for Mughals and other Central Asian rulers were constructed prior to Shah Jahan's rule, so the Taj is not unique in this regard. The Taj is, notwithstanding, outstanding for its amazing scale, dazzling nurseries, rich ornamentation, and its obvious utilization of white marble. The ivory-white marble mausoleum known as the Taj Mahal, which means "Crown of Palaces" in Persian, can be found on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.




Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor who ruled from 1628 to 1658, ordered it built in 1632 to house Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife. The burial place is the focal point of a 42-section of land complex, which incorporates a mosque and a visitor house, and is set in conventional nurseries limited on three sides by a crenelated wall. The mausoleum was basically built in 1643, but other parts of the project took another ten years to complete. In 1653, it is believed that the Taj Mahal complex was completed in its entirety at a cost of approximately 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (US$827 million). Under the direction of a board of architects led by Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, the emperor's court architect, the construction project employed approximately 20,000 artisans. As "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage," the Taj Mahal was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. It is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore referred to it as "the tear-drop on the cheek of time." Every year, 7–8 million people visit the Taj Mahal. It was named the New7Wonders of the World initiative's winner in 2007.





In Agra, where Shah Jahan took the throne in 1628, he constructed the Taj Mahal. The city was first conquered by Muslim invaders in the eleventh century, and under Shah Jahan's rule, it had grown into a thriving trade region. Because of its location on the Yamuna River's banks, which made it easy to get water, Agra quickly developed the reputation of a "riverfront garden city" due to its meticulously planned gardens, which were full of fruit-bearing trees and flowering bushes in the 16th century.


Paradise on Earth One gets a first impression of grand splendor and symmetry upon entering the Taj Mahal complex through the forecourt, which was used to house shops in the 16th century, and through a massive gate made of red sandstone that was heavily inlaid and decorated: The Taj, standing majestically on a raised platform on the north end, is aligned along a long water channel that runs through this gate. On the north-south and east-west axes, the rectangular complex is approximately 1860 feet long and 1000 feet wide.






On either side of the white marble mausoleum are identical red sandstone structures. One of these serves as a mosque, and the other, whose precise function is unknown, helps maintain architectural equilibrium. A bulbous dome atop the marble structure is surrounded by four equal-height minarets. Minarets are typically found in mosques and are used by the muezzin who leads the call to prayer. Here, however, they are ornamental rather than functional, highlighting the Mughal emphasis on structural harmony. The eight levels of paradise are referenced in the Taj's interior floor plan, which follows the hasht bishisht (eight levels) principle. The center of the main chamber houses Mumtaz Mahal's intricately decorated marble cenotaph on a raised platform.


The structure is made up of eight halls and side rooms that are connected to the main space in a cross-axial plan. This is the preferred design for Islamic architecture since the middle of the fifteenth century. After the emperor passed away three decades later, he was buried alongside her cenotaph, which is enclosed in an octagon of exquisitely carved white marble screens. In the areas directly beneath the cenotaphs are the coffins containing their bodies. The Mughal dynasty's fifth emperor was Shah Jahan. Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife, passed away during his third regnal year from complications brought on by the birth of their fourteenth child. The emperor, deeply bereaved, almost immediately began planning the construction of a suitable, long-term resting place for his beloved wife. His efforts and resources led to the construction of what is now known as the Taj Mahal, also known as the Luminous Tomb in contemporary Mughal texts.



Sunni Muslims generally favor a straightforward, open-sky burial. However, notable domed mausolea for Mughals and other Central Asian rulers were constructed prior to Shah Jahan's rule, so the Taj is not unique in this regard. However, the Taj Mahal stands out for its massive scale, stunning gardens, extravagant ornamentation, and overt use of white marble. In Agra, where he took the throne in 1628, Shah Jahan constructed the Taj Mahal. The city was first conquered by Muslim invaders in the eleventh century, and under Shah Jahan's rule, it had grown into a thriving trade region. Because of its location on the Yamuna River's banks, which made it easy to get water, Agra quickly developed the reputation of a "riverfront garden city" due to its meticulously planned gardens, which were full of fruit-bearing trees and flowering bushes in the 16th century.



The forecourt, which was used to house shops in the 16th century, and a massive gate made of red sandstone with intricate inlays and decorations gave the Taj Mahal complex its first impression of grandeur and symmetry: The Taj, standing majestically on a raised platform on the north end, is aligned along a long water channel that runs through this gate. On the north-south and east-west axes, the rectangular complex is approximately 1860 feet long and 1000 feet wide. On either side of the white marble mausoleum are identical red sandstone structures. One of these serves as a mosque, and the other, whose precise function is unknown, helps maintain architectural equilibrium. A bulbous dome atop the marble structure is surrounded by four equal-height minarets.



Minarets are typically found in mosques and are used by the muezzin who leads the call to prayer. Here, however, they are ornamental rather than functional, highlighting the Mughal emphasis on structural harmony. The inside floor plan of the Taj displays the hasht bishisht (eight levels) standard, suggesting the eight degrees of heaven. The center of the main chamber houses Mumtaz Mahal's intricately decorated marble cenotaph on a raised platform. The structure is made up of eight halls and side rooms that are connected to the main space in a cross-axial plan. This is the preferred design for Islamic architecture since the middle of the fifteenth century. After the emperor passed away three decades later, he was buried alongside her cenotaph, which is enclosed in an octagon of exquisitely carved white marble screens. In the areas directly beneath the cenotaphs are the coffins containing their bodies.



Cutting and trimmed stone, Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1632-53, Qur'anic verses(Opens in another window) engraved into the walls of the structure and plans decorated with semi-valuable stones — coral, onyx, carnelian, amethyst, and lapis lazuli — add to the wonder of the Taj's white outside. Some of the Taj Mahal's architecture incorporates elements from other Islamic traditions, while others reflect indigenous style elements. The dominant theme of the carved imagery is floral, with some recognizable and other fanciful species of flowers. This is especially evident in the dome-shaped umbrella-shaped ornamental chhatris atop the pavilions and minarets.


What's more, while most Mughal-period structures would in general involve red stone for outsides and useful engineering (like military structures and posts) — holding white marble for unique inward spaces or for the burial chambers of sacred men, the Taj's whole primary design is built of white marble and the assistant structures are made out of red sandstone. This white-and-red variety plan of the fabricated complex might compare with standards set down in antiquated Hindu messages — in which white represented virtue and the consecrated class, and red addressed the shade of the champion class.




A massive char bagh garden stretches out in front of the Taj Mahal. A char bagh was typically divided into four main quadrants, each of which had a building (like a tomb or pavilion) running along its central axis. The Taj Mahal does not appear to be centrally located within the garden when viewed from the main entrance today; instead, it is at the end of a complex backed by the river, unlike other Mughal-era pleasure gardens. However, the monument appears to be centrally located in a larger complex than initially thought when viewed from the Mahtab Bagh, moonlight gardens, across the river. The genius of the architect can be seen in this view, which can only be had when the complex includes the Yamuna River. In addition, the builders of the Taj ensured that Shah Jahan's funerary complex, as well as the tombs of other Mughal nobles and their attached gardens, could be viewed from a variety of perspectives along the river by raising the structure to an elevated foundation.


There were fountains and waterways throughout the garden. In the sixteenth century, Babur, Shah Jahan's great-grandfather, introduced this novel method of gardening to India. It is difficult to determine the original planting and layout scheme of the garden beds at the Taj because of the passage of time and the involvement of numerous individuals since its construction. The Taj was designed as a structure that would be admired for ages to come, and the best materials and techniques were used to achieve this goal. The finest marble came from quarries in Makrarna, Rajasthan, 250 miles away. The principal architect was chosen to be Mir Abd Al-Karim. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri was appointed supervisor, and Abdul Haqq was selected as the calligrapher. Throughout the construction process, Shah Jahan ensured that the principles of Mughal architecture were incorporated into the design.




What the Taj Mahal stands for When Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631, the emperor is said to have refused to take part in court celebrations, postponed the weddings of two of his sons, and allegedly paid frequent visits to his wife's temporary resting place (in Burhanpur) while the Taj was being built. Because of stories like these, popular literature has referred to the Taj Mahal as an architectural "symbol of love." However, there are other hypotheses: One suggests that Shah Jahan might have constructed a similar structure even if his wife had not passed away, and that the Taj is not a memorial to a deceased person. Another theory maintains that the Taj Mahal is a symbolic representation of a Divine Throne—God's seat—on the Day of Judgment. This theory is based on the metaphoric specificity of Qur'anic and other inscriptions as well as the Emperor's love of thrones.



The monument was constructed as a replica of a house of paradise, according to a third viewpoint. According to the "paradisiacal mansion" theory, the Taj was built in part as a glorification of Mughal rule and the emperor himself. Assuming his promotion to the privileged position was smooth, Shah Jahan's takeoff from it was not. The emperor was a prisoner when he died, not as a ruler. Shah Jahan only had a distant view of the Taj Mahal while he was housed in Agra Fort for eight years until his death in 1666. However, the magnificent marble mausoleum that he constructed "with posterity in mind" still stands and is believed to be the most recognizable landmark in the world today. Let go next to his darling spouse in the Taj Mahal, the man once called Padshah — Ruler of the World — appreciates persevering through popularity, as well, for having dispatched the world's most luxurious and important sepulcher.




Background The Taj Mahal is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, attracting millions of visitors annually. Even though it was given the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 and is currently managed by the Archaeological Survey of India, the site's high visitor volume is just one of many things that could compromise its integrity. One of the greatest gamble factors for the Taj Mahal is air contamination, which stains the outside and, a few specialists think, causes corrosive downpour that disintegrates the marble. Numerous factors, including industry, vehicle emissions, and the burning of household waste, contribute to air pollution. The Taj Mahal, the Agra Fort, and the historic Mughal settlement of Fatehpur Sikri are all included in the 10,400 square kilometer (approximately 4,000 square mile) swath that the Indian government designated as the Taj Trapezium Zone. Within this zone, most oil refineries and coal-burning industries have complied with orders to limit their emissions or switch to natural gas. Air quality monitors have also been installed, auto traffic has been banned near the Taj Mahal, and the Archaeological Survey of India has proposed a tourist cap and higher fees to reduce visitor impact.





Why is Taj Mahal so exceptional?

In terms of Indo-Islamic architecture, the Taj Mahal is widely regarded as the most significant building. A rhythmic combination of solids and voids, concave and convex, and light shadow are the hallmarks of its renowned architectural beauty; arches and domes, for example, further enhance the building's aesthetic appeal.


What is the cost to enter Taj Mahal?

The Taj Mahal is open from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes before sunset every day (Friday is closed). Cost of entry: Entry will be free for children under the age of 15 (Domestic/Indian/OCI cardholders: Rs 50; Foreign Tourists: Rs 1100; Citizens of SAARC and BIMSTEC Countries: Rs 540).




Why is Taj Mahal listed as one of the Seven Wonders of the World?

Many people consider it to be the finest example of Mughal architecture and a representation of India's long history. Over 6 million people visit the Taj Mahal every year, and in 2007, it was named one of the New 7 Wonders of the World (2000–2007) winners.


Why are 22 Taj Mahal rooms locked?

An ASI official told Times Of India that the 22 basement rooms are not always locked. He stated, "The Taj Mahal's basement rooms are not sealed; they are only locked to prevent tourists from entering the basement."




Can the Taj Mahal be touched?

Because these are heritage sites that require special care, you should avoid touching and scratching the monument's surfaces and walls. Inside the mausoleum, visitors are asked not to make noise.


Can we enter the Taj Mahal during the night?

Time of Night Viewing: 20:30 hrs. to 00.30 hrs. maximum of eight batches each 50 people The time allotted to each batch is thirty minutes. At Shilpgram, tourists are required to show up for security checks half an hour before the viewing time listed on their tickets.




What Is Housed Within the Taj Mahal?

The Mumtaz Mahal body.

Shah Jahan's body.

Two Void Cenotaphs.

Walls Decorated with Valuable Stones.

Octagonal stars covered the floors.




Why isn't the Taj Mahal kept at home?

Take them down right away if you have such images. Taj Mahal Picture or icon Taj Mahal is considered as an encapsulation of affection yet really a grave represents passing and dormancy. Therefore, do not keep an idol or picture of the Taj Mahal at home.


Why can't the Taj Mahal be rebuilt?

Due to the high cost and difficult architectural design, there will never be another Taj Mahal or similar structure built. It required almost 20 years to construct Taj Mahal and weighty expense. This palace's beauty cannot be replicated again. This is the reason why it is considered to be "one of the Seven Wonders of the World."




Why is the Taj Mahal's color changing?

Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide that are released by vehicles and chimneys combine with raindrops to form acid rain. Marble is damaged when acid rain falls on it. As a result, the Taj Mahal's color is changing.







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