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Telkes was assigned to the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II.

Updated: Dec 12, 2022






 

She was a American physical chemist and biophysicist. And Mária Telkes, (born December 12, 1900, Budapest, Austria-Hungary [now in Hungary] and died December 2, 1995, Budapest).

Hungarian born American physical chemist and biophysicist best known for her invention of the solar distiller and the first solar powered heating system designed for residences. She also invented other devices capable of storing energy captured from sunlight.
Which Subjects Of Study was her?
 solar energy
 Telkes, daughter of Aladar Telkes and Maria Laban de Telkes, was raised in Budapest. She studied physical chemistry at the University of Budapest, graduating with a B.A. in 1920 and a Ph.D. in 1924. 
She became an instructor at the institution in 1924 but decided to immigrate to the United States after visiting a relative, who served at the time as the Hungarian consul in Cleveland. In 1925 she accepted a position as a biophysicist for the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, where she worked with American surgeon George Washington Crile to create a photoelectric device that recorded brain waves.

Telkes became an American citizen in 1937. That same year she became a research engineer at Westinghouse Electric, where she developed instruments that converted heat into electrical energy; however, she made her first forays into solar energy research in 1939. That year, as part of the Solar Energy Conversion Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), she worked on thermoelectric devices powered by sunlight. When Telkes was assigned Scientific Research and Development? Telkes was assigned to the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II, and it was there that, she created one of her most important inventions: a solar distiller capable of vaporizing seawater and reconsidering it into drinkable water. Although the system was carried aboard life rafts during the war, it was also scaled up to supplement the water demands of the Virgin Islands. She remained at MIT after the war, becoming an associate research professor in metallurgy in 1945. Until the end of her career, Telkes continued to develop solar-energy applications and received several patents for her work. Together with American architect Eleanor Raymond, she designed and constructed the world’s first modern residence heated with solar energy. The house was built in Dover, Massachusetts, in 1948. Boxlike solar collectors captured sunlight and warmed the air in a compartment between a double layer of glass and a black sheet of metal.

Warmed air was then piped into the walls, where it transferred heat to Glauber’s salts (crystallized sodium sulfate) for storage and later use. She improved upon existing heat-exchanger technology to create solar stoves and solar heaters, receiving a $45,000 grant from the Ford Foundation in 1953 to create a universal solar oven that could be adapted for use by people living at all latitudes. She also worked to develop materials capable of enduring the temperature extremes of space. In 1980 she assisted the U.S. Department of Energy in the development of the world’s first solar-electric residence, which was built in Carlisle, Massachusetts. In 1952 Telkes became the first recipient of the Society of Women Engineers Achievement Award. In 1977 she received a lifetime achievement award from the National Academy of Sciences Building Research Advisory Board for her contributions to solar-heated building technology and the Charles Greeley Abbot Award from the American Solar Energy Society. What's the solar energy? solar energy, radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. The total amount of solar energy incident on Earth is vastly in excess of the world’s current and anticipated energy requirements. If suitably harnessed, this highly diffused source has the potential to satisfy all future energy needs. In the 21st century solar energy is expected to become increasingly attractive as a renewable energy source because of its inexhaustible supply and its nonpolluting character, in stark contrast to the finite fossil fuels coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

The Sun is an extremely powerful energy source, and sunlight is by far the largest source of energy received by Earth, but its intensity at Earth’s surface is actually quite low. This is essentially because of the enormous radial spreading of radiation from the distant Sun. A relatively minor additional loss is due to Earth’s atmosphere and clouds, which absorb or scatter as much as 54 percent of the incoming sunlight. The sunlight that reaches the ground consists of nearly 50 percent visible light, 45 percent infrared radiation, and smaller amounts of ultraviolet and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. What's the solar energy potential? The potential for solar energy is enormous, since about 200,000 times the world’s total daily electric-generating capacity is received by Earth every day in the form of solar energy. Unfortunately, though solar energy itself is free, the high cost of its collection, conversion, and storage still limits its exploitation in many places. Solar radiation can be converted either into thermal energy (heat) or into electrical energy, though the former is easier to accomplish.

what's the Thermal energy? Among the most common devices used to capture solar energy and convert it to thermal energy are flat-plate collectors, which are used for solar heating applications. Because the intensity of solar radiation at Earth’s surface is so low, these collectors must be large in area. Even in sunny parts of the world’s temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface area of about 40 square metres (430 square feet) to gather enough energy to serve the energy needs of one person.

What's the solar heating? The most widely used flat-plate collectors consist of a blackened metal plate, covered with one or two sheets of glass, that is heated by the sunlight falling on it. This heat is then transferred to air or water, called carrier fluids, that flow past the back of the plate. The heat may be used directly, or it may be transferred to another medium for storage. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used for solar water heaters and house heating. The storage of heat for use at night or on cloudy days is commonly accomplished by using insulated tanks to store the water heated during sunny periods. Such a system can supply a home with hot water drawn from the storage tank, or, with the warmed water flowing through tubes in floors and ceilings, it can provide space heating. Flat-plate collectors typically heat carrier fluids to temperatures ranging from 66 to 93 °C (150 to 200 °F). The efficiency of such collectors (i.e., the proportion of the energy received that they convert into usable energy) ranges from 20 to 80 percent, depending on the design of the collector.

What's the Another method of thermal energy? The conversion is found in solar ponds, which are bodies of salt water designed to collect and store solar energy. The heat extracted from such ponds enables the production of chemicals, food, textiles, and other industrial products and can also be used to warm greenhouses, swimming pools, and livestock buildings. Solar ponds are sometimes used to produce electricity through the use of the organic Rankine cycle engine, a relatively efficient and economical means of solar energy conversion, which is especially useful in remote locations. Solar ponds are fairly expensive to install and maintain and are generally limited to warm rural areas. What's the solar powered cook stove? On a smaller scale, the Sun’s energy can also be harnessed to cook food in specially designed solar ovens. Solar ovens typically concentrate sunlight from over a wide area to a central point, where a black-surfaced vessel converts the sunlight into heat. The ovens are typically portable and require no other fuel inputs.

Mária Telkes


born December 12, 1900, Budapest, Austria-Hungary [now in Hungary] died December 2, 1995, Budapest. Hungarian born American physical chemist and biophysicist best known for her invention of the solar distiller and the first solar powered heating system designed for residences. What's Maria Telkes invent? During World War II, she invented a solar distiller that vaporized seawater and then recondensed it into drinkable water. A solar still, her most important invention, was included in the military's emergency medical kits on life rafts and saved the lives of both downed airmen and torpedoed sailors.

What's Maria Telkes nickname? The Sun Queen Mária Telkes (December 12, 1900 – December 2, 1995) was a Hungarian-American biophysicist, scientist and inventor who worked on solar energy technologies. Telkes is considered one of the founders of solar thermal storage systems, earning her the nickname The Sun Queen. Did Maria Telkes get married? Unusual for a woman of the time, even a successful academic and scientist, Telkes never married and never had children. During her seven decades in the United States, she returned only once to Hungary, where her nuclear family remained. Who invented solar panels? However, it was not until 1883 that New York inventor Charles Fritts (1850-1903) managed to produce the photovoltaic effect with a device that became the origin of today's solar panels.

Who invented residential solar panels? Edmund Becquerel As you will see in our infographic timeline below there were many notable inventors and scientists that made significant progress in the development of Solar Panels. Perhaps the most notable invention came as far back as 1839 from a 19-year-old Frenchman called Edmund Becquerel.




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