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Tuberculosis is also called TB and a potentially serious infectious bacterial disease.

Updated: Dec 4, 2022






How TB are spread?

The bacteria that cause TB are spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes.


What's the Common?

~Partly preventable by vaccine.

~Treatable by a medical professional

Spreads easily.

~Requires a medical diagnosis.

~Lab tests or imaging always required.

~Medium term resolves within months.


What's the Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is also called TB and a potentially serious infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs.


How TB is spread?

1. By airborne respiratory droplets (coughs or sneezes).

2. By saliva (kissing or shared drinks).

3. For informational purposes only.

4. Consult your local medical authority for advice.


What's the Symptoms?

Requires a medical diagnosis, Most people infected with the bacteria that cause tuberculosis don't have symptoms.


When symptoms do occur, they usually include a cough (sometimes blood-tinged), weight loss, night sweats and fever.


What's the Treatment consists of antibiotics?

Treatment isn't always required for those without symptoms. Patients with active symptoms will require a long course of treatment involving multiple antibiotics.


What's the causes tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.


What's the happens if you get tuberculosis?

The general symptoms of TB disease include feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.


The symptoms of TB disease of the lungs also include coughing, chest pain, and the coughing up of blood. Symptoms of TB disease in other parts of the body depend on the area affected.



What's the Risk factors for TB?

~Poverty.

~HIV infection.

~Homelessness.

~Being in jail or prison (where close contact can spread infection)

~Substance abuse.

~Taking medication that weakens the immune system.

~Kidney disease and diabetes.

~Organ transplants.


What's is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB), once called consumption, is a highly infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source, 1.5 million people died from the disease in 2020.


Tuberculosis is also the 13th leading cause of death globally. Currently, it’s the second main infectious cause of death, after COVID-19.


TB is most common in developing countries, but according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, over 7,000 cases were reported in the United States in 2020.


Tuberculosis is usually curable and preventable under the right conditions.




What's the symptoms of tuberculosis?

Some people who acquire Mycobacterium tuberculosisTrusted Source, the bacterium that causes TB, and do not experience symptoms.


This condition is known as latent TB. TB can stay dormant for years before developing into active TB disease.


Active TB typically causes many symptoms. While symptoms usually relate to the respiratory system.


They could affect other parts of the body, depending on where the TB bacteria grow.


What's the Symptoms caused by TB in the lungs?

cough lasting more than 3 weeks and coughing up blood or sputum (phlegm) and

chest pain.


What's the General TB symptoms?

~unexplained fatigue.

~weakness.

~fever.

~chills.

~night sweats.

€appetite loss.

€weight loss.




What's the TB that spreads to other organs?

Blood in urine and loss of kidney function, if TB affects the kidneys And back pain and stiffness, muscle spasms, and spinal irregularity.


if TB affects the spine nausea and vomiting, confusion, and loss of consciousness, if TB spreads to the brain.


Who is at risk for tuberculosis?

Risk factors that increase your chance of contracting the bacteria that causes TB disease having diabetes, end stage kidney disease, or certain cancers, malnutrition

using tobacco or alcohol for long periods of time.


A diagnosis of HIV or having another immune system compromising situation

Medications that suppress the immune system can also put people at risk of developing active TB disease. These include medications that help prevent organ transplant rejection.


What's the Other medications that increase your risk of active TB?

~cancer.

~Rheumatoid arthritis.

~Crohn’s disease.

~psoriasis.

~lupus.



Do you know?

According to the WHO Trusted Source, more than 95 percent of all TB-related deaths occur in developing countries.And

Traveling to regions with high TB rates can also increase your risk of contracting the bacterial infection.


Which regions has increase TB cases?

sub Saharan Africa, India, Mexico and other Latin American countries, China and many other Asian countries, parts of Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union

islands of Southeast Asia.


Micronesia Many lower income U.S. households have limited access to resources, and including healthcare, needed to diagnose and treat TB, which puts them at greater risk of developing active TB disease.


People experiencing homelessness and people living in congregate settings, including jails, prisons, and correctional facilities, have a higher risk of contracting the bacterial infection.


What's the HIV and TB?

People living with HIV are at higher risk of contracting the infection and dying from TB.


In fact, TB is the leading cause of death of HIV positive people, according to the WHO Trusted Source.


Untreated latent TB is more likely to progress to active TB in a person living with HIV. That makes testing for TB essential for anyone with a HIV positive status.



People living with HIV can take a few important steps to help reduce the risk of contracting this bacterial infection.

1. Getting tested for TB.

2. Taking HIV medication as advised by healthcare professionals.

3. Avoiding being in close proximity to someone with TB.

4. Trying to stop smoking, smoking can both raise the risk of developing TB and reduce the response to HIV and TB treatment.

5. Eating a nutrient-rich, balanced diet to help reduce the risk of complications from HIV and improve medication absorption.

6. Getting regular exercise, if possible, to promote immune system health.


What's the causes tuberculosis?

A bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes TB. A variety of TB strains exist, and some of these have become resistant to medication.



How TB bacteria are transmitted?

TB bacteria are transmitted through infected droplets in the air. Once these droplets enter the air, anyone nearby can inhale them.


How Someone with TB can transmit bacteria?

~sneezing.

~coughing.

~speaking

~singing.

~People with well functioning immune systems may not experience TB symptoms, even if they’ve contracted the bacteria.

~This is known as latent or inactive TB infection.

~About a quarter Trusted Source of the world’s population has latent TB.


Why Latent TB is not contagious?

Latent TB is not contagious, but it can become active disease over time. Active TB disease can make you sick, and you can also spread it to others.


How does tuberculosis diagnosed?

Healthcare professionals can diagnose TB with a few different tests, including a skin test, a blood test, or both.


Why different tests, including a skin test, a blood test, or both?

A skin test is positive, there’s a chance you’ve received a false negative result from the skin test.


A false negative result can happen if your immune system isn’t working properly or if it’s been less than 8 weeks since exposure to TB.


Why Skin test?

Your doctor can use a purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test to determine if you’ve acquired TB bacteria.



For this test, your doctor will inject 0.1 milliliter (mL) of PPD (a small amount of protein) under the top layer of your skin. Between 2 and 3 days later.


you’ll return to your doctor’s office to have the results read. A welt on your skin over 5 millimeters (mm) in size where the PPD was injected may be considered a positive result.


Reactions between 5 and 15 mm in size can be considered positive depending on risk factors, health, and medical history.


All reactions over 15 mm are considered positive, regardless of risk factors. The test is not perfect, though.


It can only tell you whether you have a TB infection, not whether you have active TB disease. Plus, some people do not respond to the test even if they have TB.


Others respond to the test and do not have TB. People who’ve recently received the TB vaccine may test positive but not have a TB infection.


Why Blood test?

Your doctor can use a blood test to follow up on TB skin results. They may also recommend a blood test first, particularly if you have an existing health condition that may affect your response to the skin test.



The two TB blood tests currently approved in the U.S. are Quantiferon and T-Spot. Blood tests results can be positive, negative, or indeterminate.


Like the skin test, the blood test can’t indicate whether or not you have active TB disease.


Why Chest X-ray?

If you get a positive result from the skin or blood test, your doctor will likely order a chest X-ray to look for certain small spots in your lungs.


These spots, a sign of a TB infection, indicate that your body is trying to isolate the TB bacteria.


A negative chest X-ray can suggest latent TB, but it’s also possible your test results were incorrect.


Your doctor may recommend other testing. If the test indicates you have active TB disease, you will begin treatment for active TB.


Otherwise, your doctor may recommend getting treated for latent TB. This can prevent the bacteria from reactivating and making you sick in the future.



Why Other tests?

Your doctor may also order tests on sputum or mucus extracted from deep inside your lungs to check for TB bacteria.


If your sputum tests positive, this means you can transmit TB bacteria to others.


You’ll need to wear a special mask until after you’ve started treatment and your sputum tests negative for TB.


You may need other tests, such as a chest CT scan, bronchoscopy, or lung biopsy, if previous test results remain unclear.


How's the tuberculosis treated?

Many bacterial infections improve after a week or two of treatment with antibiotics, but TB is different. People diagnosed with active TB disease generally have to take a combination of medications for 6 to 9 months.


If you don’t complete the full treatment course, it’s highly likely the TB infection may come back. A returning infection can resist previous medications.


so it’s often much more difficult to treat. Your doctor may prescribe multiple medications because some TB strains are resistant to certain drug types.


Which is the most common combinations of medications for active TB disease?

~isoniazid.

~Ethambutol (Myambutol).

~pyrazinamide.

~rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane).

~rifapentine (Priftin).


Note:- These particular medications can affect your liver, so people taking TB medications should be aware of liver injury symptoms.


They’ll typically also check your liver with frequent blood tests while taking these medications.

1. appetite loss.

2. dark urine.

3. fever lasting longer than 3 days.

4. unexplained nausea or vomiting

jaundice.

5. yellowing of the skin

abdominal pain.


Note:- Notify your doctor immediately if you experience any of these symptoms.




What's the Vaccinations in TB?

A TB vaccine, called the bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine, is mostly used in countries with a high prevalence of TB.


This vaccine works better for children than for adults. It’s not widely used in the United States because the risk of TB remains low.


The vaccine can also interfere with TB skin tests and cause a false-positive result.


What's outlook for tuberculosis?

Treatment for tuberculosis can be successful, given a person takes all the medication as directed and has access to proper medical care.


If someone living with TB has other diseases, treating active TB may be more difficult. HIV.


For example, affects the immune system and weakens the body’s ability to fight off TB and other infections.


Other infections, diseases, and health conditions can also complicate a TB infection, as can not having adequate access to medical care.


Generally, early diagnosis and treatment, including a full course of antibiotics, offer the best chance for curing TB.


How can tuberculosis be prevented?

Even if the risk of TB is low where you live, it never hurts to be familiar with the things you can do to prevent contracting the TB bacteria or transferring the infection to others.



How Preventing TB?

The risk of being exposed to TB bacteria is very low in North America. That said, it’s still important to know how to prevent it in high-risk settings.


What's important steps you can take?

connecting with a healthcare professional for testing if you believe you’ve been exposed to TB,


Getting tested for TB if you have HIV or any condition that increases your risk for infection. And visiting a travel clinic or check with your doctor about testing before and after traveling to a country with a high TB rate,


Asking about your workplace infection prevention and control program and follow the precautions provided if your job carries a risk of exposure to TB, avoiding close or prolonged contact with someone who has active TB,



And Preventing transmission, According to the WHO Trusted Source, people with active TB can transfer the bacteria that causes the infection to between 10 and 15 people through close contact per year, if they don’t take precautions.


Which steps help prevent in the transmission of TB?

Get tested if you have a higher risk of TB or think you may have been exposed.


If you test positive for latent or active TB, take all the medication prescribed.


If you’ve been diagnosed with active TB, avoid crowds and close contact with others until you’re no longer contagious.


Wear a mask if you have active TB and have to spend time around others.


Note:- Follow any other instructions provided by your doctor.



What's the bottom line?

TB can be treated and cured, but it’s always best to start treatment as soon as possible.

If you believe you’ve been exposed, or have a higher risk of infection because of a medical condition or where you work or live, your doctor can offer more information and guidance on next steps.


How long do TB patients live?

Researchers have found that people who have survived active tuberculosis disease through successful treatment may have a lower life expectancy than people with a latent infection, estimating a loss of 3 to 4 years of life.


What's happens if I test positive for TB?

If you have a positive reaction to the TB blood test or TB skin test, your doctor or nurse will do other tests to see if you have TB disease.


These tests usually include a chest x-ray. They may also include a test of the sputum you cough up.



What's the first stage of tuberculosis?

A TB skin test or a TB blood test can often diagnose the infection. But other testing is also often needed. Treatment exactly as recommended is needed to cure the disease and prevent its spread to other people.


What's the stages of tuberculosis?

There are 3 stages of TB,

exposure,

latent,

and active disease.


What Happens If TB is left untreated?

Pulmonary TB (in the lungs or throat) is the only form of the illness that is infectious, but TB can affect any part of the body.


If left untreated, TB is a life-threatening illness. Even delays in treatment can have a devastating impact on a person's health. But TB is curable with antibiotics.


What's the medicine kills TB?

Isoniazid and Rifapentine (INH-RPT) are medicines used together to treat LTBI.


They kill the sleeping TB germs before they make you sick. It can take many months for the medicine to kill the TB germs because they are strong.


How's TB be prevented?

Wash your hands after coughing or sneezing. Don't visit other people and don't invite them to visit you.


Stay home from work, school, or other public places. Use a fan or open windows to move around fresh air.





















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