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What Kinds of Disorders Are Bipolar?



What Kinds of Disorders Are Bipolar?

A brain disorder known as bipolar disorder alters a person's mood, energy, and capacity for daily activities. Mood episodes are intense emotional states experienced by people with bipolar disorder that typically last from a few days to a few weeks. Manic/hypomanic (abnormally happy or irritable mood) or depressive (sad mood) are the terms used to describe these mood swings. Additionally, people with bipolar disorder typically experience periods of depression. People with bipolar disorder can live full and productive lives when they receive treatment.


Even people who don't have bipolar disorder experience mood swings. Nevertheless, these alterations in mood typically last for hours rather than days. Additionally, people with bipolar disorder rarely experience the extreme change in behavior or difficulty with daily routines and social interactions that mood episodes do. A person with bipolar disorder may have difficulty working or attending school and may experience disruptions in their relationships with loved ones.



There are three different diagnoses for bipolar disorder: cyclothymic disorder, bipolar I, and bipolar II.


It is common for bipolar disorder to run in families: Between 80 and 90 percent of people with bipolar disorder have a relative who suffers from depression or bipolar disorder. People who are at risk may experience mood swings as a result of environmental factors like stress, lack of sleep, and drugs and alcohol. Although the exact causes of bipolar disorder in the brain are unknown, dysregulated brain activity is thought to be caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals. The onset age is typically 25 years old.


Anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently associated with bipolar I disorder. Compared to the general population, people with bipolar I disorder are significantly more likely to commit suicide.


When a person experiences a manic episode, they are diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. People with bipolar I disorder go through manic episodes when they feel like they are on top of the world or uncomfortably irritable. The majority of people with bipolar I disorder also experience periods of neutral mood. Some people with bipolar I disorder also experience depressive or hypomanic episodes.


A manic episode is a period of at least one week during which a person is extremely upbeat or irritable most of the day, has more energy than usual, and exhibits at least three of the following behavioral changes:


Increased distractibility Increased activity (such as restlessness, working on multiple projects at once) Increased risky behavior (such as reckless driving, spending sprees) These behaviors must be obvious to friends and family and represent a change from the person's usual behavior. For example, feeling energetic despite getting significantly less sleep than usual. The symptoms must be severe enough to disrupt activities and responsibilities at work, in the family, or in social settings. A manic episode's symptoms frequently necessitate hospitalization for safety reasons.




Psychotic features include disorganized thinking, false beliefs, and/or hallucinations in some individuals experiencing manic episodes.


Hypomanic Episode A hypomanic episode is one in which manic symptoms are less severe and only last for four days instead of a week. Hypomanic symptoms do not typically result in significant issues with day-to-day functioning.


A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which a person experiences at least five of the following symptoms, including at least one of the first two:


Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Fatigue Increased or decreased sleep Increased or decreased appetite Restlessness (such as pacing) or slowed speech or movement Difficulty concentrating Frequent thoughts of death or suicide Treatment and Management Symptoms of bipolar disorder typically improve with treatment. Although talk therapy (psychotherapy) can help many patients learn about their illness and adhere to medications, preventing future mood episodes, medication is the cornerstone of bipolar disorder treatment.


The most frequently prescribed medications for bipolar disorder are those known as "mood stabilizers," such as lithium. It is believed that these medications balance brain signaling. Preventive care should be continued because bipolar disorder is a chronic illness in which mood swings frequently recur. Individualized treatment for bipolar disorder is used; Before finding the medication that best suits their needs, people with bipolar disorder may need to try several different ones.


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a potent treatment option that can be utilized in situations where psychotherapy and medication have failed to alleviate symptoms. ECT causes a brief, controlled seizure by applying a brief electrical current to the scalp multiple times while the patient is under anesthesia. Seizures induced by ECT are thought to alter brain signaling pathways.




Family members may also benefit from professional resources, particularly mental health advocacy and support groups, given that bipolar disorder can cause serious disruptions in a person's daily life and create a stressful family situation. Families can acquire strategies for coping, active treatment participation, and support from these sources.


Bipolar II Disorder A person must have at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode in order to be diagnosed with bipolar II disorder (see above). Between episodes, people get back to how they normally work. Since hypomanic episodes frequently feel pleasurable and can even improve performance at work or school, people with bipolar II disorder frequently seek treatment after their first depressive episode.


Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders, which can exacerbate depression and hypomania in people with bipolar II disorder, are two other mental illnesses that are frequently present in these individuals.


The treatment for bipolar II is the same as for bipolar I: psychotherapy and pharmaceuticals. Depending on the specific symptoms, mood stabilizers and antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed medications. ECT (see above) may be utilized in cases where medication fails to alleviate severe depressive symptoms. Treatment is tailored to each individual.


Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder that involves frequent "mood swings" and symptoms of hypomania and depression. Cyclothymia sufferers experience emotional ups and downs, but their symptoms are less severe than those of bipolar I or II disorder.




The following are symptoms of cyclothymic disorder:


Many periods of hypomanic and depressive symptoms over the course of at least two years, but the symptoms do not meet the criteria for a hypomanic or depressive episode.

The mood swings, or symptoms, have persisted for at least half of the two years, never ceasing for more than two months.

Cyclothymic disorder treatment options include talk therapy and medication. Talk therapy can alleviate stress and mood swings for many people. A good way to look for patterns in mood swings is to keep a mood journal. Cyclothymia sufferers may begin and stop treatment at any time.


What symptoms does bipolar disorder present?

The dramatic episodes of high and low mood in bipolar disorder do not follow a predetermined pattern. A person may experience the same mood (manic or depressed) multiple times before changing to the opposite. These episodes can last for weeks, months, or even years at a time.


The degree to which it becomes more or less severe varies from person to person and can also change over time.


Mania, or "the highs," are these signs:


During depressive episodes, or "the lows," a person with bipolar disorder may experience the following symptoms: excessive happiness, hopefulness, and excitement; sudden shifts from joy to irritability, hostility, and hostility; restlessness; rapid speech; poor concentration; rapid speech; increased energy; decreased need for sleep; unusually high sex drive; poor judgment; drug and alcohol abuse; becoming more impulsive; decreasing need for sleep; decreasing appetite; greater sense of self-confidence and well-being;





Feelings of hopelessness or worthlessness, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, slow speech, lack of sexual drive, inability to feel pleasure, uncontrollable crying, difficulty making decisions, irritability, insomnia, changes in appetite that cause you to gain or lose weight, and thoughts of death or suicide are all symptoms of bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder does not have a single root cause. It may be caused by a few different factors in some people, according to research.


For instance, it may at times simply be a matter of genetics, indicating that you inherit the condition. Scientists aren't exactly sure how or why brain development plays a role.


What are the risk factors for bipolar disorder?

The onset of bipolar disorder typically occurs during late adolescence or early adulthood. It rarely occurs earlier in childhood. Family history of bipolar disorder is possible.


Bipolar disorder treatment options abound.

There is treatment for bipolar disorder. It is a chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment. There are illnesses that can be much more difficult to treat in people who have four or more mood episodes per year or who also have problems with drugs or alcohol.





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